Terms Used in cnc machine programming

Terms Used in cnc machine programming –


Following terms are mostly used in cnc machine or in vmc machine programming


A – Angular dimension around x- axis
B - Angular dimension around y- axis
C - Angular dimension around z- axis
F – Feed
G – Praparatory function
I – Distance to arc centre to X
J - Distance to arc centre to Y
K - Distance to arc centre to Z

M  - Miscellaneous function
N – Sequence number
S – Spindle speed
T – Tool selection
U – Secondary motion dimensional parllel to X
V - Secondary motion dimensional parllel to Y
W - Secondary motion dimensional parllel to Z

A typical format for a block in cnc machine –

N1 G3 X5 Y10 Z8 U..V..W..I..J..K..F50 S 100 T1 M3


How To Make CNC VMC Programme

How To Make CNC/VMC Programme with step by step - 



Firstly divides the cnc/vmc programme in three parts -

1. Header

2.Operational part

3. Footer


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1. Header -


In this part mostly G and M code are used same for maximum cnc/ vmc programme
It consist following code in most of cnc/vmc  programming

G00 - Rapid motion

G17,18,19 - For plane selection

G40,41,42 - For tool compensation (off, left on, right on)

G70,71 - For dimension  (inch, mm)

G90,91 - For co-ordinate system (absolute, incremental)

G94,95 - Feed rate (mm/min,mm/rpm)


M08 - coolant on

M03,04 - Spindle rotation direction (cw, anti cw)

T - Tool selection

D1 - Its used in siemens only

S - Speed of machine

F - Feed rate


2. Operational Part -


it consists blue print of machine working path. This is main part because it decide how to machine will cut the required job. It contains co-ordinate for tool path with the help of drawing.

3. Footer -


After comlete the job, In this part mostly machine stopping codes are written. it contains following codes most of time -

M05 - Spindle stop

M09 - Coolant off

G75 - Home position  (for siemens)

M02/M30 - End of Programme


CNC Machine - Introduction, Types, Parts And working

https://www.cncrules.com/2018/11/cnc-machine-introduction-working-parts.html

G- Code for cnc/vmc machine -
https://www.cncrules.com/2018/05/blog-post_25.html

M- Code for cnc/vmc machine -
https://www.cncrules.com/2018/05/blog-post.html




For More Details about above article visit -



VMC Programe - Reactangular slot cutting Programme

VMC Programe -  Reactangular slot cutting Programme - 



Size of Job - (250*200) mm

Drawing -





N01 G17G40G54G71G90G94  (xy plane,compensation off,offsetting,dimension,coordinate,feed)

N02 T1D1                                         (Tool selection)

N03 M03S1000F50                         (Spindle rotation, speed of spindle, feed rate)

N04 G00X50Y50                            (Rapid motion to starting point)

N05 G01Z-5                                  (Tool cut material to required depth at point A)

N06 G01 Y150                              (Tool reached to next point B)


N07 G01 X200                             (Tool reached to next point C)

N08 G01Y50                                (Tool reached to next point D)

N09 G01 X50                               (Tool reached to next point A)

N10 G00Z10                                (Tool extract from job with a safe distance)

N11 M05                                      (Spindle off)

N12 G75X0Y0Z0                        (Tool goes to home position)

N13 M30                                     (End of programmed)


CNC/VMC G- Code -

https://www.cncrules.com/2018/05/blog-post_25.html


CNC/VMC M- code -


Cutting speed and Estimate Time for Various Operations formula on cnc/vmc machine

Cutting speed and Estimate Time for Various Operations formula on cnc/vmc machine





Milling Time Estimation - 




The cutting speed in milling is the surface speed of milling cutter.

Cutting speed =  pi * diameter of milling cutter(mm) * rotational; spped of milling cutter (rpm) /1000

Time for one pass =  L/FZN

F = feed per tooth  (mm)
Z = number of teeth in milling cutter
L = length of movement (mm)
N = cutting speed (m/mm)


Drilling Time Estimation



The cutting speed in drilling is the surface speed of the twist drill.


Cutting speed =  pi * diameter of milling cutter(mm) * rotational; spped of milling cutter (rpm) /1000


Turning Time Estimation -



The cutting in turning is the surface speed of workpiece.

 Cutting speed = pi * diameter of milling cutter(mm) * rotational; spped of milling cutter (rpm) /1000

CNC Lathe Turning Operation Programme

CNC Lathe Turning Operation Programme  -


Material size -    Round Dia- 80 mm
                                  Length - 600 mm

Required size -  Diameter - 74 mm (Distance - 500mm)






Programme -



N01 G54G71G90G94  (offsetting, dimension selection, co-ordinate selection)

N02 T1D1M08            (Tool selection, coolant on)

N03 M03S1000F100   (spindle direction, speed, Feed

N04 G00X5Z0            (Take tool near to job)

N05 G01X-2                (Take Cut)

N06 G01Z-500             (Length for cut)

N07 G00X10               (Return to first point in x - direction)

N08 G00Z0                  (Return to first point in z - direction)

N09 G01X-4                 (Take Cut)

N10 G01Z-500              (Length for cut)

N11 G00X10                (Return to first point in x - direction)

N12 G00Z0                  (Return to first point in z - direction)

N13 G01X-6                (Take Cut)

N14 G01Z-500             (Length for cut)

N15 G00X10                (Return to first point in x - direction)

N16 G01Z0                   (Return to first point in z - direction)

N17 M05M09               (Spindle off and coolant off)

N18 G75X0Z0              (Returun to home position)

N19 M30                        (End of programme)